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Research on Dimethyl Fumarate

Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) is the methyl ester of fumaric acid. Dimethyl fumarate is an ester and an α,β-unsaturated electrophilic compound which can quickly undergo Michael additions with nucleophiles. Dimethyl Fumarate is also an effective diene acceptor in the thermal Diels-Alder reaction, where the reactivity of its vinylenic bond is enhanced by the two electron-withdrawing ester groups. Due to the geometry of the starting ester, the Diels-Alder product will have a trans configuration. With this reaction, compounds with bicyclo skeletons can be synthesized,e.g. a diester with a norbornene skeleton from dimethyl fumarate and cyclopentadiene.
Dimethyl Fumarate is a lipophilic electrophile that has profound effects on oxidative and immunological pathways.It rapidly interacts in a Michael addition reaction with glutathione or is metabolized to monomethyl fumarate. Dimethyl Fumarate also suppresses the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibits angiogenesis.Through these actions Dimethyl Fumarate alters the course of psoriasis and may reduce inflammation related to multiple sclerosis.
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